Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. This white crystalline compound is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid groups are trans (E) and in maleic acid they are cis (Z). Fumaric acid has a fruit-like taste. The salts and esters are known as fumarates. As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and is denoted by the E number E297.
Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), bolete mushrooms (specifically Boletus fomentarius var. pseudo-igniarius), lichen, and Iceland moss.
Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Fumarate is then converted by the enzyme fumarase to malate. Human skin naturally produces fumaric acid when exposed to sunlight.
Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle.
Fumaric acid esters are used to treat psoriasis, as it has been suggested that the condition is caused by an impairment of fumaric acid production in the skin. A starting dose is 60-105 mg daily, which may be gradually increased to as much as 1,290 mg per day. Side effects include kidney orgastrointestinal disorders, as well as skin flushing; these are mainly caused by excess intake. Decreased white blood cell (WBC) counts have been reported with prolonged use A fumaric acid ester is currently under investigation for treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Fumaric acid is a food acidulent used since 1946. It is non-toxic. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1.36 g of citric acid to every 0.91 grams of fumaric acid to add sourness, similar to the way malic acid is used. It is also used as a coagulant in stovetop pudding mixes.
Fumaric acid was first prepared from succinic acid. A traditional synthesis involves oxidation of furfural (from the processing of maize) using chlorate in the presence of a vanadium-based catalyst. Currently, industrial synthesis of fumaric acid is mostly based on catalytic isomerisation of maleic acid in aqueous solutions at low pH. Maleic acid is accessible in large volumes as a hydrolysis product of maleic anhydride, produced by catalytic oxidation of benzene or butane.
The chemical properties of fumaric acid can be anticipated from its component functional groups. This weak acid forms a diester, it undergoes additions across the double bond, and it is an excellent dienophile.
Fumaric acid is used in the manufacture of polyester resins and polyhydric alcohols and as a mordant for dyes.
The main side effect that causes a high dropout rate in most clinical trials is gastrointestinal complaints, which occur in up to 60% of patients. Gastrointestinal problems manifest as diarrhoea, nausea and stomach cramps and pains. In addition, flushing occurs in 30% of patients and is worse at the onset of therapy.
Other more serious side effects that have occurred include kidney disturbance and reduced function and white blood cell abnormality. It is essential that kidney function and blood count should be monitored regularly when taking FAEs. These changes appear to be reversible when treatment is stopped and to date there are no reports of severe long-term toxicity.
Further studies are required to determine how exactly FAEs work in psoriasis. Dimethylfumarate appears to be the major active ingredient and further investigation into refining the currently available FAE formulation may reduce the side effect profile and make it a more acceptable treatment for psoriasis.
Yes, we have sell Fumaric acid to worldwide.
Our packing for Fumaric acid was available at 25 kgs and 50 kgs in Bags. For more information about Fumaric acid packing details, you can contact us.
You can go to product specification and material safety data sheet.
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